Part of my day job involves maintaining a cloud infrastructure for scientific computing. The deployment process can get complicated as the number of repos and the supported cloud platforms increase. There are Makefiles and bash scripts here and there, and one needs to manually track the order of tasks. As a result, it often takes a full day to do the deployment: half day for the preparation and half day for the update.

One obvious improvement is to automate the whole process so that

  • human time can be saved
  • human error can be avoided
  • maximal task parallelization can be achieved

After some googling, I decided to use Fabric and Airflow for the automation. Fabric makes remote command execution easier, and Airflow handles workflow. Some useful references are listed here:


Fabric is written in Python and its installation is simply

pip3 install -U fabric3

The basic idea of Fabric is to wrap bash commands inside Python functions. These Python functions are placed in a Its command-line API takes the form of

fab [setup] <command>[:args,kwargs] [options]

where both setup and command are Python functions in, args and kwargs are parameters to the command functon, and options are Fabric options. Most of the options are related to authentication, server addresses, etc. They are the parameters that shouldn’t be hard coded in the

By default, fab searches the current directory for To use a elsewhere, use the -f option.

The most useful Fabric APIs are

from fabric.api import env, sudo, run, local, lcd, cd

Here env is a global dictionary. All of the command-line options are saved in it. You can put custom content in it too. lcd and cd specifies the local and remote location for the command execution. local runs command locally, whereas sudo and run run command on remote server. run runs the command as env.user. If not specified, the default user is used. sudo runs the command as root.

That’s basically the essence of Fabric. Here I will give two examples.

The first example runs all commands locally. It merges the remote updates to two git repos and runs a make command in the second repo. The is simply

def update_and_make():
    with lcd('path-to-first-repo'):
        local('git pull --rebase')
    with lcd('path-to-second-repo'):
        local('git pull --rebase')
        local('make all && make install')

To execute it, run

fab update_and_make

Note if any step fails, the execution stops. There is no need to check if the execution succeeds inside the Python code.

The second example runs only remote commands and uses both setup and command functions for the fab command. Here the setup fills in the information that differs for AWS and gcloud, and command defines the common operations for deployment.

def aws():
    env.user = 'ubuntu'
    env.key_filename = aws_key_fname
    env.hosts = config['aws']['hosts']
    env.cmd = config['aws']['cmd']

def gcloud():
    env.key_filename = gcloud_key_fname
    env.hosts = config['gcloud']['hosts']
    env.cmd = config['gcloud']['cmd']

def deploy():
    sudo('docker pull repo-name')
    sudo(f'docker run {env.cmd}')

To do the deployment, run

fab aws deploy
fab gcloud deploy

I prefer not to include options for fab command because it’s too much typing. All the configuration parameters are put in a YAML file and get loaded into a dictionary config.

One slightly annoying thing is that Fabric passes all args and kwargs as strings. So fab my_func:is_apple=False won’t pass is_apple=False, but is_apple='False'. To get around this issue, I set default value for boolean argument to be False. When True is desirable, I pass is_apple=1 from the command-line.

Fabric is great in running sequential jobs. If parallel execution is desirable, you can simply run several fab commands. To minimize human intervention, extra tooling for workflow management is needed. That would be the topic for Part II.